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how are leaf drugs packaged and stored for commerce

how are leaf drugs packaged and stored for commerce

how are leaf drugs packaged and stored for commerce插图

Colophony and balsam of tolu are packed in kerosene tins, while asafoetida is stored in well closed containers to prevent loss of volatile oil. Cod liver oil, being sensitive to sun-light, should be stored in such containers, which will not have effect of sunlight, whereas, the leaf drugs like senna, vinca and others arepressed and baled.

How should I store my medicinal plants/herbal drugs?

Dried medicinal plants/herbal drugs, including essential oils, should be stored in a dry, well-aerated building, in which daily temperature fluctuations are limited and good aeration is ensured 6. Fresh medicinal plant materials should be stored at appropriate low temperatures, ideally at 2-8 frozen products should be stored at less than -20C.

Which part of the leaf is the storage home of food?

The leaf is the storage home of the food inside plants. The roots suck the food. But it gets stored in the leaf. What is a Seed leaf which food is stored? cotyledon Seed leaf in which food is stored? cotyledon Where is starch stored in a variegated Coleus leaf? The starch in a variegated Coleus leaf is stored in the pigmented parts of the leaf.

How to pack crude drugs for the commercial market?

PACKAGING: In order to send the prepared crude drug to the commercial market it must be put in some convenient containers or packages. The principal aim of packaging should be to provide ample protection to the drug as well as to give economy of space.

What is the proper way to store controlled substances?

All controlled drugs in schedules II, III, and IV of the controlled substances act are to be stored in the medication cart in separate drawers designated for that purpose. Schedule II controlled substances are to be stored in a locked drawer. SAMPLE POLICY METHODS

Why must fresh harvested medicinal plants be delivered as quickly as possible to the processing facility?

Freshly harvested medicinal plants/herbal drugs must be delivered as quickly as possible to the processing facility in order to prevent thermal degradation. 10. The harvested crop must be protected from pests, mice/rodents, livestock and domestic animals. Any pest control measures taken should be documented.

What is vegetative propagation?

Vegetative propagation can be defined as regeneration or formation of a new individual from any vegetative part of the plant body. The method of vegetative propagation involves separation of a part of plant body, which develops into a new plant.

What is the cultivation of crude drugs?

Cultivation of Crude Drugs: Cultivation of medicinal plants requires intensive care and management. The conditions and duration of cultivation required vary depending on the quality of medicinal plant materials required.

Why is asexual propagation important?

Importance of asexual propagation: 1. It is a cheaper, easier and rapid method of multiplication. Many fruit trees usually require 4-5 years to bear the fruits when developed from seeds. The plants developed by vegetative methods, take only a year to bear fruits. 2.

Which method of propagation is the only method of reproduction and continuation of species in such plants?

2. Plants like roses and chrysanthemum, etc do not form viable seeds. Thus, vegetative propagation is the only method of propagation is the only method of reproduction and continuation of species in such plants. 3. All the plants developed by these methods will be generally similar to the parent plant.

When should medicinal plants be harvested?

1. Medicinal plants/herbal drugs should be harvested when they are at the best possible quality for the proposed use.

What is a stem cutting?

1. Cutting: These are the parts of the plant (stem, root or leaf) which, if grown under suitable’ conditions, develop new plants. Stem cutting are generally used to obtained new plants. Examples: Sugarcane and rose, etc. ADVERTISEMENTS:

1. COLLECTION

1. COLLECTION Crude drugs may be collected from; Cultivated plants Wild plants Collection of drug from cultivated plants always ensures a true natural source and reliable product which may or may not be the case when drugs are collected from wild plants .

Rules of collecting crude drugs

Rules of collecting crude drugs CRUDE DRUG RULES Roots and rhizomes Should be collected in fall when vegetative processes have ceased. Barks Should be collected in spring before vegetative processes begin. Leaves and flowering tops Should be collected when photosynthesis is most active i.e.

Rules of collecting crude drugs

Rules of collecting crude drugs CRUDE DRUG RULES Flowers Should be collected prior to or just about the time of pollination . Fruits Should be collected when fully grown, either fully ripen (Anise, Fennel) or unripe (Black pepper) . Seeds Should be collected when fully matured. If possible, before fruits have opened.

2. GARBLING

2 . GARBLING It is a process of removing extraneous matter such as parts of plant other than required ones, dirt and added adulterants from the drug. It is usually done at time of collection but should be done after drug is dried and before it is baled or packaged .

2. GARBLING

2. GARBLING In some cases, particles of iron must be removed from the drug before it is ground by use of magnets. Dirt and sand can be removed by sifting or by means of air currents. In leaf drugs, an excess of stem shall be removed.

3. DRYING

3. DRYING It is a process by which excessive moisture is removed from any article to ensure good keeping qualities. Advantages : Bulk of drug is lost due to loss of moisture Handling and transportation becomes easy Cost of transportation is reduced Packaging becomes easier Drying fixes the constituents and facilitates grinding and milling

Types of drying

Types of drying Shade drying is employed when it is desirable to retain natural colour of the drug . Sun drying is adaptable to such drugs that are not favorably affected by direct action of sunlight. Artificial drying is most acceptable method when temperature control and ventilation can be regulated.

What is garbling in a plant?

Garbling is an important process in the preparation of drugs for commercial market and should be carefully done for producing a quality drug. Garbling of a crude drug sample involves the removal of extraneous matters and added adulterants from it by suitable means to produce a clean and pure drug. The common extraneous matters in crude plant drugs include other parts of the same plant, same parts of other plants, same parts of other plants growing together, rotten, discoloured or dried plant parts, dirts, soil particles and accidental or added adulterants. Partial garbling can be done during or after collection, but a thorough garbling should be done after the drying process and before it is baled or packed. Garbling can be done manually by simple hand picking or by the use of some simple devices like bars of magnet for removing adhering iron particles, sieves for separating dirts and small pieces of the same or other parts of the plant, or by using currents of air to remove chuffy and other lighter substances present in the drug material. In garbling a leaf drug the excess amounts of stems, flowers or fruits and any dry or rotten leaf present should be removed by hand. A process of sifting may be utilized to remove the broken pieces of leaves from an entire leaf drug sample before baling. Excessive quantities of overground stems or stem bases and roots should be removed from rhizomes and tubers before or after drying. Adhering dirts and soil particles in underground drugs may be removed by washing the fresh simples or by sieving, sifting, brushing or shaking the dried material. Drugs, in which admixture of iron particles are suspected, may be garbled by passing magnet bars several times through the sample. All particles of iron will thus be removed. Garbling is absolutely essential for producing a clean drug sample and to minimize damage to the grinding machine and to the dies and punches of the tablet machine by which some of the powdered crude drugs may be compressed into tablets.

What is a quality control test?

Quality control tests or evaluatory tests are applied to small samples of large consignments of drugs. However, the samples taken must be representative of the whole consignment. During the preparation o ( a crude drug for commercial market the following simp~e tests may be employed: (i) Preliminary examination for the general appearance of the sample by using macroscopical and sensory characters: (ii) Determination of foreign organic matters by manually picking out the extraneous matters from the sample and finding out their proportional quantity; (iii) Determination of the amount of moisture present in the dried drug by a simple “loss on drying” method to ensure that the sample does not contain too much of moisture, and (iv) some quantitative chemical tests to determine the amount of the active principles in the sample.

What is the best way to dry digitalis?

Drying by artificial heat is most useful for drying drugs like Digitalis in which the cardiac glycosides undergo rapid enzymatic hydrolysis as soon as the leaves are harvested. Thus this method is generally the most acceptable method when skillfully operated.

What is the process of garbling a leaf drug?

In garbling a leaf drug the excess amounts of stems, flowers or fruits and any dry or rotten leaf present should be removed by hand. A process of sifting may be utilized to remove the broken pieces of leaves from an entire leaf drug sample before baling.

What is a heating chamber?

Generally, such a device or heating chamber consists of a closed space provided with a number of movable screen trays to hold the drug material.

How to dry plant drugs?

Depending on the type of the drugs and their chemical constituents, plant drugs may be dried by any of the following two methods: (a) Drying in open air by natural heat, and (b) Drying ip.door by artificial heat. (a) Open air dryirig by natural heat may. be done either in the sun or in the shade, depending on the material to be dried.

What temperature do leaves and barks dry at?

Leaves, barks and woods are pread in thin layers in the screen trays and dried at a temperature of about 40° to 6Qo C. They are thoroughly exposed to the heated air by occasional stirring. Leaves and barks containing volatile principles are also dried by this method, but a much lower temperature is used to protect the volatile constituents.